These remote routes were hundreds of miles long and went to the most rural parts of the United States by horse and buggy. Bristow showed Grant evidence that Babcock was part of the Whiskey Ring. Babcock invented the story to frustrate the prosecution. (2001). On the night of April 23, 1876, hired thieves opened the safe, using an explosive to make it appear that the safe had been broken into. 4. Whiskey distillers had been evading taxes in the Midwest since the Lincoln Administration. After the trial, Grant distanced himself from Babcock. An analysis of the scandals and frauds reveals that a majority had to do with illicit financial gain; the Safe Burglary Conspiracy, however, involved breaking and entering, property damage, and framing an innocent citizen. Two scandals involved women: Black Friday and the Trading Post Ring. [27][28] This moiety contract system, although legal, led to abuse in the loosely run Treasury Department under Sec. Then, on (Black) Friday, September 23, 1869, when the price of gold had soared to $160 an ounce, Boutwell released $4 million in gold specie into the market and bought $4,000,000 in bonds. The Crédit Mobilier is not included as a Grant scandal since the company was founded during the President Abraham Lincoln administration. Had Grant vetoed the bill, the government would not have any money to operate for the following fiscal year, which would have necessitated a special session of Congress. Grant then appointed a special prosecutor, former senator John B. Henderson, to go after the ring. Grant never even consulted with cabinet members on the treaty annexation; in effect the annexation proposal was already decided. Written as the general was dying, painfully, of throat cancer, the book was a best-seller. 05 Their plan was to convince President Grant not to sell Treasury gold, in order to increase the sal… Grant was no moral giant. As Joan Waugh, writing for the Miller Center at the University of Virginia tells us, his own brother-in-law tried to manipulate him into unwittingly assisting gold speculators into cornering the market. His brother-in-law Reverend M.J. Cramer was appointed as consul at Leipzig. [59], Grant was accused by Senator Charles Sumner in 1872 of practicing nepotism while President. The standards in many of Grant's appointments were low and charges of corruption were widespread. Grant had no time to recover after the Whiskey Ring graft trials ended, for another scandal erupted involving War Secretary William W. Belknap. The jury listened to the president's words and quickly acquitted Babcock of any charges. On June 5, 1869 while Grant was traveling from New York to Boston, on The Providence, a ship owned by both Gould and Fisk, the two speculators urged Grant not to sell any gold from the Treasury and attempted to convince Grant that a high price of gold helped farmers and the Erie Railroad. In addition, it introduced the President of the United States, Fitzgerald Grant III (Tony Goldwyn) and his chief of staff Cyrus Beene (Jeff Perry). In 1870, Senator Carl Schurz and B. Gratz Brown, Governor of Missouri, broke away from the Radicals and officially founded the Liberal Republican Party. [54][55], On March 18, 1876, Admiral David D. Porter wrote a letter to William T. Sherman, "...Our cuttle fish [Robeson] of the navy although he may conceal his tracks for a while in the obscure atmosphere which surrounds him, will eventually be brought to bay...." Robeson later testified in front of a House Naval Committee on January 16, 1879, about giving contracts to private companies. Saved by Elizabeth Yeung. Although Robeson served ably during the Virginius Affair and did authorize the construction of five new Navy ships, his financial integrity remained in question and was suspect during the Grant administration. Ulysses S. Grant, American general, Union army commander during the late years of the American Civil War, and 18th president of the United States. Although Grant’s honesty and integrity was never doubted, several of the people he chose proved to be dishonest and corrupt. Created by Shonda Rhimes. Grant's third collector appointment, Chester A. Arthur, implemented Boutwell's reform. Corrupt system of postal contractors, clerks, and brokers to obtain lucrative Star Route postal contracts. Gould remained a powerful force on Wall Street for the next 20 years. He also worked hard for the recently freed African Americans, establishing the Justice Department and tasking it with going after the Klan. Following the inability of the Grant Administration and Republican Congress to stop the damaging economic effects from Panic of 1873, in addition to the unpopularity of the Republican Reconstruction Acts, the Democratic Party, on March 4, 1875 gained a majority in the House of Representatives. [6][7] A majority of Grant's cabinet had studied or graduated from various colleges and universities, including Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Political scandals in the United States by presidential administration, Presidential scandals in the United States, Ulysses S. Grant presidential administration reforms, United States Military Academy at West Point, Cengage Advantage Books: Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People, http://www.granthomepage.com/us_grant_jr.htm, http://books.google.com/books?id=TZp_GT7PscIC&dq=Nothing+Like+it+in+the+World:+The+Men+Who+Built+the+Transcontinental+Railroad,+1863-1869&cd=1, http://books.google.com/books?id=cIMMvdUZw9QC&dq=William+Belknap+Scandal&source=gbs_navlinks_s, http://books.google.com/books?id=XrZTTCaCRAUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Gilded+Age&cd=5#v=onepage&q=&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=emUMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=Cr%C3%A9dit+Mobilier+of+America+formation&source=bl&ots=ojppfb6PwV&sig=ZC1TOPkBGG67lfzv5Ov8Tg4q72Y&hl=en&ei=FSMpS8flBp3gtAOp2K27DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCQQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Cr%C3%A9dit%20Mobilier%20of%20America%20formation&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=DxupZ6O0p64C&pg=PA182&lpg=PA182&dq=Whiskey+Ring+Babcock&source=bl&ots=et0Fsrk1gF&sig=FXfxPJ6InjRWSCw0lCDJgU-LAXo&hl=en&ei=A8j0SpGXG4O2swOw4oC1CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Whiskey%20Ring%20Babcock&f=false, http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/resources/pdf/henry_wilson.pdf, http://books.google.com/books?id=C6Re1rvM9nMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+history+of+the+President's+cabinet&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=IKEEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA308&dq=Safe+Burglary+Conspiracy#v=onepage&q=Safe%20Burglary%20Conspiracy&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=WpYUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA343&dq=These+changes+in+his+executive+staff&ei=C6FvS7-1GIjMzgT_7f2PDg&cd=4#v=onepage&q=These%20changes%20in%20his%20executive%20staff&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=0cMTAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA182&dq=Benjamin+Bristow#v=onepage&q=Benjamin%20Bristow&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=nQstPeWppxsC&pg=PA53&dq=William+Belknap+and+Zachariah+Chandler+meet+Grant#v=onepage&q=William%20Belknap%20and%20Zachariah%20Chandler%20meet%20Grant&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=35pFSQ3mmzkC&pg=PA1&dq=Liberal+Republican+Party+Formation&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Liberal%20Republican%20Party%20Formation&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=Kq1wZ3900xYC&pg=PT584&dq=Attorney+General+Williams+Grant+Administration&lr=&cd=3#v=onepage&q=Attorney%20General%20Williams%20Grant%20Administration&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=wA_VAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA109&dq=Grant+knew+about+Whiskey+Ring&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Grant%20knew%20about%20Whiskey%20Ring&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=ESZtbLg-T30C&pg=PA125&dq=Roach+and+the+Navy,+1871-1881&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Roach%20and%20the%20Navy%2C%201871-1881&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=E_oBAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Gilded+Age&cd=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false, "The Safe Burglary Case: Preparing for the trial – Witnesses for the defense summoned", http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C05E2D81F3FE73BBC4053DFBF66838D669FDE, "The Safe Burglary Case: Columbus Alexander and Major Richards of the Washington police examined", http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9803E6D81630E53ABC4B51DFBF66838D669FDE, http://elections.harpweek.com/1876/Events-1876.htm, http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseByDateCartoon.asp?Month=June&Date=3, "Excerpted from Presidential Temperaments", http://www.keirsey.com/handler.aspx?s=keirsey&f=fourtemps&tab=5&c=grant, "Orville Babcock's Indictment and the CIA Leak Case", http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4986394, http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2000/fall/whiskey-ring-1.html, The Last High White House Official Indicted While in Office: U.S. Grant's Orville Babcock, "Party Division in the Senate, 1789–Present", http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/one_item_and_teasers/partydiv.htm, "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives (1879 to Present)", http://clerk.house.gov/art_history/house_history/partyDiv.html, White House Official Website: Ulysses S. Grant, UVA Miller Center of Public Affairs: Ulysses S. Grant, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant_presidential_administration_scandals?oldid=5176651. Grant later rescinded the order on the grounds that advance notice would cause the ringleaders to cover their tracks and become suspicious. However, Belknap, escorted by Interior Secretary Zachariah Chandler, rushed to the White House and met with Grant before his meeting with Representative Bass. He became involved with an investment firm with his son. The Democratic reform movement sought to expose the corruption in the Grant Administration and to do this needed a majority in the House of Representatives. The New York Tribune stated that the Whiskey Ring scandal "had been met at the entrance of the White House and turned back." Stock prices plunged and the price of food crops such as wheat and corn dropped severely, devastating farmers who did not recover for years afterward. In 1876, a congressional committee headed by Representative Washington C. Whitthorne discovered that $15 million of that sum was unaccounted for. This pay raise proposal was submitted as an amendment to the government's general appropriations bill. (October 17, 1881). The Hopkin Mansion, 1875–1906, formerly located on Nob Hill in San Francisco, California, represented the enormous wealth generated during the American industrial revolution. He had the Ivy League degree, the decorated military service, the … On February 29, 1876, Marsh testified in front of a House investigation committee headed by Representatives Lyman K. Bass and Hiester Clymer. Americans found themselves released from discipline and restraint by the rapid growth of industrial wealth after the Civil War. On the advice of Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, the President did not testify in open court but instead gave a deposition in front of a congressional legal representative at the White House. Chandler did exactly as Grant had ordered. Richardson. Still the charges of corruption damaged his presidency in the eyes of the American peopl… President Ulysses S. Grant's claim to fame was taking command of the Union forces during the American Civil War, personally chosen by President Abraham Lincoln to defeat the Confederacy. Although moving the supervisors most certainly would have disrupted the ring, Bristow conceded that he would need documentary evidence on the ring's inner workings to prosecute the perpetrators. When the Whiskey Ring scandal broke out in 1875, Grant in a reforming mood wrote, "Let no guilty man escape." This allegation remained unproven by the committee. The most compelling event that lead to corruption was the Civil War itself, unleashing a torrent of human depravity, deaths and unscrupulously gained riches enabled by persons who rose from deserved obscurity to powerful military and civilian positions. According to one respected historian, C. Vann Woodward, there are three primary forces that caused national corruption during this time period. Andrew Jackson, Zachary Taylor — it wasn't without precedent. That's some of the thinking that got George Washington elected as the first President of the United States, and re-elected four years later. Tittaren får också följa medarbetarna runt presidenten Fitzgerald Grant (spelad av Tony Goldwyn) i Vita huset. Robeson was asked about the use of old material to build ironclads and whether he had the authority to dispose of the Puritan, an outdated ironclad. ed. Defeat them he did, and then he became president. Stevens, Walter Barlow; Bixby, William Kenny (1916). Grant received the letter from a messenger while playing croquet with Porter at a deluxe Pennsylvania retreat. He was too loyal to those who were dishonest and opportunistic. No reformer was appointed to the Navy Department, however. The second thorough congressional investigation concluded that abuses either did not exist, had been corrected, or were in the process of being corrected. Neither John Delano nor Orvil Grant performed any work, nor were they qualified to hold such surveying positions. [29][30] John D. Sanborn was contracted by Sec. After the acquittal, Babcock initially returned to his position as Grant's private secretary outside the Oval Office. His presidential nomination was unopposed and inevitable. The New York Times claimed that Schurz's speech was "carefully prepared" and "more or less disfigured and discolored by error." [43], After Babcock's indictment, Grant requested that Babcock go through a military trial rather than a public trial, but the grand jury denied his request. The same company also paid off a $10,000 note that Robeson owed to Jay Cooke and offered itself as an influence broker for other companies doing business with the Navy, thus turning away any competitive bidding for naval contracts. The plot failed, but the countermeasures Grant took are generally seen as causing a wide-spread economic collapse that ruined investors and businesses nation-wide. ! The scandal was particularly upsetting, in this Victorian age, since it involved women. Perhaps most recently (so far), President Dwight Eisenhower served two terms in the 1950s after effectively winning World War II in Europe. The law was repealed in January 1874 and the bonuses returned to the treasury. After the presidential election of 1872, Grant reappointed all of his cabinet with a single exception. ed. Grant's secretaries Horace Porter and Orville E. Babcock and Grant's friend George K. Leet, owner of a private warehouse, allegedly shared in these profits. It has been suggested that Grant accepted the resignation in a Victorian impulse to protect the women involved. In essence, when it came to prosecuting those guilty of graft, Grant used his presidential power to protect close friends, particularly his military associates. And she recalls moments from her days in the White House. [37] Evidence also suggests that Babcock was involved with the swindles by the corrupt Washington contractors' ring and with those who wanted to get back at Columbus Alexander, an avid reformer and critic of the Grant Administration. Like Abraham Lincoln before him, Grant was a Republican. An 1876 Democratic investigation was able to temporarily shut down the ring, but it reconstituted itself and continued until a federal trial in 1882 finally ended the Star Route frauds.[23][24]. By September 21 the price of gold had jumped from $37 to $141, and Gould and Fisk jointly owned $50 million to $60 million in gold. But Mellie was never meant to be anyone's trophy wife. Before the second inauguration came the exposure of Crédit Mobilier, a scheme to siphon off the profits made in building the transcontinental railroad, which soiled … Corbin had bought gold at 33 margin and sold at 37, leaving Julia a profit of $27,000. Defeat them he did, writing the terms of surrender himself, signed by the South's General Robert E. Lee. [50][51] Lieut. In fairness, the booming economy that proceeded after the Civil War enveloped the whole nation in a chaotic frenzy for achieving financial gain and success. Bristow, Grant unexpectedly issued an order not to give any more immunity to persons involved in the Whiskey Ring, leading to speculation that he was trying to protect Babcock. The roots of the Credit Mobilier scandal predated Grant: railroads overcharging for government contracts, then paying off investigators. A House investigation committee in 1874 revealed that Sanborn had split $156,000 of this with unnamed associates as "expenses." Grant had come from a humble background where men of superior intelligence and ability were threats rather than assets. Ulysses S. Grant - The scandals. However, corruption ensued, with contractors paid exorbitant fees for fictitious routes and for providing low quality postal service to the rural areas. The order caused strife between Sec. [38], The Whiskey Ring scandal even came to the steps of the White House. In 1875, it was revealed that many government employees were pocketing whiskey taxes. [50], George M. Robeson, Secretary of Navy (1869–1877), Congress allotted Secretary George M. Robeson's Department of the Navy $56 million for construction programs. [58] The corrupt agents "arrested" the "thieves" who then committed perjury by signing a document falsely stating Alexander was involved in the safe burglary. SPOILER ALERT: Olivia Pope and President Fitzgerald Grant get hot and heavy in several steamy sex scenes for Scandal Season Five premiere. There were 110 convictions, and three million dollars in tax revenues were recovered from the ring. Another financial panic occurred in 1873, at least in part because of railroad financiers, and a nationwide economic depression resulted. Fitz was married to his eventual successor Mellie Grant, with whom he has a deceased son, Jerry Grant Jr., a daughter, Karen Grant and a son, Teddy Grant.Born to lead, President Fitzgerald Grant checked every prestigious box on the way to the White House. Representative Oakes Ames of Massachusetts and Thomas C. Durant were prominent stockholders in … The government had been known to hire private citizens and groups to collect taxes for the Internal Revenue Service. Belknap appeared visibly upset or ill, mumbling something about protecting his wives' honor and beseeching Grant to accept his resignation "at once." When Gould visited Corbin's house, he read Julia's letter with the warning from Grant. After hearing about Belknap's predicament, Grant arranged a meeting with Representative Bass about the investigation. [15] On September 6, 1869, Gould had bought the Tenth National Bank that was used as a buying house for gold, and Gould and Fisk began buying gold in earnest. Ulysses S. Grant left the White House in 1877, admitting in a remarkable farewell address to Congress that it had been his "misfortune to be called to the Office of Chief Executive without any political training" and apologizing for his "errors of judgment." To his credit, Grant endeavored to accomplish good things. Without enough evidence for impeachment, the House ended the investigation by admonishing Robeson for gross misconduct and claimed that he had set up a system of corruption known as Cattellism. Although this reversal had the appearance of not letting the guilty get away, the prosecutor's trial cases were made more difficult to prove in court. The Liberal Republican movement initially began out of dissatisfaction with the centralized federal government controlled by the Radicals, a faction of the Republican Party who favored African American civil rights, a patronage system, high tariffs, and disenfranchising former confederates. Treasury Secretary George S. Boutwell had been elected to the U.S. Senate in the 1872 election and was replaced by Assistant Treasury Secretary William A. Richardson in 1873. [29], In 1875, the U.S. Department of the Interior was in serious disrepair due to corruption and incompetence. On March 3, 1873, President Grant signed a law that increased the president's salary from $25,000 a year to $50,000 a year. There were rumors that Grant himself was involved with the ring and was diverting its profits to his 1872 re-election campaign. The founders argued that dependent citizens, corruption, and centralized power endangered people's liberty. [29][30] Treasury officials pressured Internal Revenue agents not to collect delinquent accounts so Sanborn could accumulate more. [13] President Grant, however, was stoic, and did not agree to Fisk and Gould's suggestion to stop releasing Treasury Gold into the market. Richardson's tenure as Treasury Secretary was very brief, as another scandal erupted. [38] The following are excerpts from President Grant's deposition. Bristow had obtained information that the Whiskey Ring operated in Missouri, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Spenser, Jesse Ames (1913). Henderson convened a grand jury, which found that Babcock was one of the ringleaders. On Scandal, President Mellie Grant (Bellamy Young) was coming to the realization that being the President of the United States requires a lot of … On May 25, 1870, Boutwell had implemented reforms that reduced public cartage and government costs, stopped officer gratuities, and decreased port smuggling, but on July 2, 1872, U.S. Congressmen receive a retroactive $5,000 bonus for previous term served. [19], James Fisk a.k.a. Circuit Justice John F. Dillon, another Grant appointment, overruled Cook's objections, declaring the questions admissible in court. Certain historians believe that charges of corruption were exaggerated by reformers, since President Grant was the first President to initiate Civil Service reform and that several of Grant's Cabinet members made solid advances towards ending abuses that occurred in previous administrations.[2][3]. President Grant would go on to win reelection the next day after a surge of support. Born to lead, President Fitzgerald Grant checked every prestigious box on the way to the White House.He had the Ivy League degree, the decorated military service, the perfect wife and children, and years of experience as the Governor of California. Grant received a letter to this effect, on which he wrote, "Let no guilty man escape. Grant, Jr., stated that Ulysses S. Grant was "incapable of supposing his friends to be dishonest. [16][17][18], Sometime around September 19, 1869, Corbin had sent a letter to Grant, at the urging of Gould, desperately urging Grant not to release gold from the treasury. The second generator of corruption was the opening of the West and South to unrestrained exploitation that caused older parts of the country to fall into moral confusion. During the second term, scandal rocked the Grant administration. An extortion arrangement was set up among Carrie Belknap, Caleb P. Marsh, and incumbent contract holder John S. Evans, in which Carrie Belknap and Marsh would receive $3,000 every quarter, splitting the proceeds, while Evans would be able to retain his post at Fort Sill. The deposition strategy worked and the Whiskey Ring prosecution never went after Grant again. Ulysses S. Grant is probably better known as a Civil War general than a U.S. President. [38][41], Grant's Pulitzer Prize winning biographer, William S. McFeely, stated that Grant knew Babcock was guilty and perjured himself in the deposition. German born reformer and Senator from Missouri who started the Liberal Republican Party in 1870. By Dailymail.com Reporter. These men—the claim agents, speculators, subsidy-seekers, government contractors, and the all-purpose crooks—were born from the war and entered politics after the fighting stopped. One of these men, Orville E. Babcock, was a subtle and unscrupulous enemy of reformers, having served as Grant's personal secretary for seven years while living in the White House. Although the collections were legal, Sanborn reaped $213,000 in commissions on $420,000 taken in taxes. Edwin Wiley. Even though the Senate voted that it could put private citizens on trial, many senators were reluctant to convict Belknap since he was no longer Secretary of War. His confidants knew this and in many situations took advantage of Grant's presidential authority. Interior Secretary Columbus Delano, discovered to have taken bribes for fraudulent land grants, was forced to resign from office on October 15, 1875. It was eight years of one thing after another. Bristow, with the cooperation of Attorney General Edwards Pierrepont and Treasury Solicitor Bluford Wilson, launched proceedings to bring many members of the ring to trial. Stemming the flood of corruption that swept the nation during Grant's presidency and the Reconstruction period would have required the strength of a moral giant in the White House. A competent authority claimed that the contractor had already been paid in full and there was no need for further reward. The intricate financial scheme was primarily conceived and administered by Wall Street manipulators Jay Gould and his partner James Fisk. ... and the issue came to a head during President Ulysses Grant's second term. [26], In 1874, Grant's cabinet reached its lowest ebb in terms of public trust and qualified appointments. Simon, John Y.; Grant, Ulysses S. (2005). Olivia who's there, goes to the hospital. R., F.D. Midwest distillers were discovered cheating the government out of tax money with the help of crooked federal agents. Many of Grant's friends who knew him claimed that the President was "a truthful man" and it was "impossible for him to lie." "[9], Many of Grant's associates were able to capture his confidence through flattery and brought their intrigues openly to his attention. As a capable engineer, his work brought him to Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida, where he drowned in a boating accident at the age of 48 while supervising the building of Mosquito Inlet Light station. Carrie Belknap died within the year, but William Belknap and his second wife continued to accept payments, though they were smaller due to a dip in Fort Sill's profits. In fairness, Grant did appoint cabinet reformers and special prosecutors that were able to clean up the Treasury, Interior, War, and Justice departments. [34], Nevins (1957), Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration Vol. Grant was personally honest with money matters; however, he was extremely careless with his associates. With Kerry Washington, Columbus Short, Darby Stanchfield, Katie Lowes. Examples include not allowing Benjamin Bristow to move the Tax Revenue Supervisors and relinquishing immunity in the Whiskey Ring cases, made Grant a protector of political patronage. Henderson, while in the Senate, had been the administration's worst critic, and Grant appointed him to maintain integrity in the Whiskey Ring investigation. Their plan was to convince President Grant not to sell Treasury gold, in order to increase the sales of agriculture products overseas and increase the shipping business of Gould's Erie Railroad. In 2013, Goldwyn was cast in the Lifetime original movie, Outlaw Prophet, as Warren Jeffs. Chandler immediately went to work reforming the Interior Department by dismissing all the important clerks in the Patent Office. [5][6] Historian C. Vann Woodward stated that Grant had neither the training nor temperament to fully comprehend the complexities of rapid economic growth, industrialization, and western expansionism. Grant called for swift punishment but caused further scandal when he moved to protect his personal secretary, Orville E. Babcock, who had been implicated in the affair. In a reversal of his "let no guilty man escape," order to Sec. Gould had earlier claimed to Grant that raising the price of gold would actually help farmers. Dec 15, 2013 - This Pin was discovered by Amanda McClish. Nearly every assessment of Grant's character presents him as a sterling individual of high personal integrity. This would keep the fraudulent officers off guard and allow investigators to uncover their misdeeds. Grant needed to clear his own name as well as Babcock's. Bristow's investigation resulted in 350 federal indictments. Although he is now regarded more highly than in years past, Grant's presidency is still remembered more for what it wasn't than for what it was. The volume of stocks being sold on Wall Street decreased by 20%. The good news is that this week’s Scandal episode appears to bring us one step closer to getting rid of these two clowns once ... is the president, ... so she advises Mellie Grant to concede. Sumner's accusation was not an exaggeration. No reforming cabinet member, however, was installed in the Department of Navy. Grant's secretary of state, Hamilton Fish, who was often at odds with Babcock, made efforts to save Grant's reputation by advocating that reformers be appointed to or kept in public office. Although pay increases were constitutional, the act was passed in secret with a clause that gave the congressmen $5,000 in bonus payouts for the previous two years of their terms. [31] On June 22, 1874 President Grant, in an effort of reform, signed a bill into law that abolished the moiety contract system. Bristow. However, as more scandals broke out the Liberal Republicans became a party of reform who, along with the Democrats, wanted to purge the government from corruption. The high-water mark of the flood of corruption that swept the nation took place in 1874, after Benjamin Bristow was put in charge to reform the Treasury. 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